History of Education in Nigeria

History of Education in Nigeria


Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing state-controlled policies regarding public education and state schools. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, Primary education, Secondary education, and Tertiary education.

African Traditional Education

Long before the Europeans arrived, education had been part of Nigerians. The Children were taught about their culture, social activities, survival skills, and work. Most of these education processes impacted the children informally; a few of these societies gave a more formal teaching of the society and culture.

In these Societies, there are formal instructions that governed the rites of passage from youth into adulthood. The youth is expected to have attained the necessary social and survival skills as well as have a grounded knowledge of the culture. These are the foundations of education in Nigeria, and upon them was western education implemented.

European or Christian Education

European Education was introduced into Nigeria in the 1840s. It began in Lagos, Calabar, and other coastal cities. In a few decades schooling in the English language gradually took root in the

Nigeria. During the Colonial years, Great Britain did not promote education. The schools were set up and operated by Christian Missionaries. The British colonial government only funded a few schools.

The policy of the government was to give grants to mission schools rather than expand the system.

Islamic Education

In the northern part of Nigeria, which was predominantly Muslim-populated, Western-style education was prohibited. The religious leaders did not want the missionaries to interfere with Islam. This gave way to the establishment of an Islamic school that focused primarily on Islamic education.

 

 

Education in Nigeria

Today, adult literacy has been estimated to be over 78 percent for men and 64 percent for women. These statistics were made based on estimated literacy in English. That excludes literacy in Arabic among northern Muslims. It is therefore not erroneous to call Nigeria a nation dominated by educated persons.

Prior to Nigeria's independence, Nigeria had only two established Post-secondary Institutions. Yaba Higher college (founded in 1934, Now Yaba College of Technology) and the University of Ibadan were founded in 1948. It was then a College of the University of London until two years after the independence when she became autonomous. More prominent universities which include the University of Nigeria, Obafemi Awolowo University (formerly the University of Ife), Ahmadu Bello University, and Mohood Abiola Kashimawo University (formerly the University of Lagos) were founded in the years that followed the Independence.

In the 1970s more universities were founded which include the University of Benin (founded in 1970), and the new universities opened in Calabar, Ilorin, Jos, Port Harcourt, Sokoto, and Maiduguri. In the

In the 1980s, more universities were opened as well as institutes specializing in Agriculture and Technology. A number of Polytechnics were also opened, which includes the Yaba College of Technology in Lagos and Kaduna Polytechnics.

In 1980, the estimated enrollment in primary schools was 12 million, Secondary and technical colleges 1.2 million, teachers colleges 240,000, and Universities 75,000. One would expect that with such an estimate, Nigerian education in Nigeria three decades after would have greatly improved. Unfortunately, the reverse has been the case.

Primary Education

Primary education begins at around age 5 for the majority of Nigerians. Students spend six years in primary school and graduate with a school-leaving certificate. Before 1976, education policy was still largely shaped by the colonial policy of the British Colonial Period. In 1976, the Universal Primary Education program was established. This program faced many difficulties and was subsequently revised in 1981 and 1990. The Universal Basic Education, UBE, came as a replacement for Universal Primary Education and intended to enhance the success of the first nine years of schooling The UBE involves 6 years of Primary School education and 3 years of Junior Secondary School education, culminating in 9 years of uninterrupted schooling, and transition from one class to another is automatic but determined through continuous assessment. This scheme is monitored by the Universal Basic Education Commission, UBEC, and has made it "free", "compulsory" and a right of every child.

 Secondary Education

Students spend six years in Secondary School, that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School). In Senior Secondary School Class 2 (SS2), students are taking the GCE O’Levels exam, which is not mandatory, but some students take it to prepare for the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. The Senior Secondary School ends on the WASSCE. Junior Secondary School is free and compulsory. It leads to the BECE, which opens the gate to Senior Secondary School.

Promotional Examinations

With the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria, the recipient of the education would spend six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary school, three years in senior secondary school, and four years in a tertiary institution. The six years spent in primary school and the three years spent in junior secondary school are merged to form the nine in the 9-3-4 system. Altogether, the students must spend a minimum period of six years in Secondary School. During this period, students are expected to spend three years in Junior Secondary School and three years in Senior Secondary School.

The General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) was replaced by the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). The SSCE is conducted at the end of the Secondary School studies in May/June. The GCE is conducted in October/November as a supplement for those students who did not get the required credits from their SSCE results. The standards of the two examinations are basically the same. A body called West African Examination Council (WAEC) conducts both the SSCE and GCE. A maximum of nine and a minimum of seven subjects are registered for the examination by each student with Mathematics and English Language taken as compulsory.

A maximum of nine grades are assigned to each subject from A1, B2, B3 (Equivalent to Distinctions Grade); C4, C5, C6 (Equivalent to Credit Grade); D7, E8 (Just Pass Grade); F9 (Fail Grade). Credit grades and above are considered academically adequate for entry into any University in Nigeria. In some study programs, many universities may require higher grades to get admission.

The Federal Government policy on education is adhered to by all secondary schools in Nigeria. Six years of elementary school is followed by six years of secondary school. Junior Secondary school consists of JSS1, JSS2, and JSS3 which are equivalent to the 7th, 8th, and 9th Grades while the Senior Secondary school consists of SS I, SS 2, and SS 3 which is equivalent to the 10th, 11th, and 12th Grade. The Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE) is taken at the end of the SS 3. The West African Examination Council (WAEC) administers both exams. Three to six months after a student has taken the SSCE examination, they are issued an official transcript from their institution. This transcript is valid for one year, after which an Official transcript from the West African Examination Council is issued.

The National Examination Council is another examination body in Nigeria; it administers the Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE) in June/July. The body also administers the General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) in December/January. Students often take both WAEC and NECO examinations in SSS 3.

Tertiary Education

The government has majority control of university education. Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of Universities (Public and Private), Polytechnics, Monotechnics, and Colleges of education. The country has a total number of 129 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state governments own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from 129 to 138 the Federal Government gave 9 new private universities their licenses in May 2015.

First-year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at a maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Candidates with a minimum of Merit Pass in National Certificate of Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND), and other Advanced Level Certificates minimum qualifications with a minimum of 5 O/L Credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs.

Students with required documents typically enter university from age 17-18 onwards and study for an academic degree.

International Education

As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC) listed Nigeria as having 129 international schools. ISC defines an 'international school' in the following terms "ISC includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other than the country’s national curriculum and is international in its orientation."

In Conclusion

This short description of the history of education will help you as an introduction to the subject. It exposes you to traditional African education, European or Christean education, Islamic Education and so on.

History of Education in Nigeria


Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing state-controlled policies regarding public education and state schools. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, Primary education, Secondary education, and Tertiary education.

African Traditional Education

Long before the Europeans arrived, education had been part of Nigerians. The Children were taught about their culture, social activities, survival skills, and work. Most of these education processes impacted the children informally; a few of these societies gave a more formal teaching of the society and culture.

In these Societies, there are formal instructions that governed the rites of passage from youth into adulthood. The youth is expected to have attained the necessary social and survival skills as well as have a grounded knowledge of the culture. These are the foundations of education in Nigeria, and upon them was western education implemented.

European or Christian Education

European Education was introduced into Nigeria in the 1840s. It began in Lagos, Calabar, and other coastal cities. In a few decades schooling in the English language gradually took root in the

Nigeria. During the Colonial years, Great Britain did not promote education. The schools were set up and operated by Christian Missionaries. The British colonial government only funded a few schools.

The policy of the government was to give grants to mission schools rather than expand the system.

Islamic Education

In the northern part of Nigeria, which was predominantly Muslim-populated, Western-style education was prohibited. The religious leaders did not want the missionaries to interfere with Islam. This gave way to the establishment of an Islamic school that focused primarily on Islamic education.

 

 

Education in Nigeria

Today, adult literacy has been estimated to be over 78 percent for men and 64 percent for women. These statistics were made based on estimated literacy in English. That excludes literacy in Arabic among northern Muslims. It is therefore not erroneous to call Nigeria a nation dominated by educated persons.

Prior to Nigeria's independence, Nigeria had only two established Post-secondary Institutions. Yaba Higher college (founded in 1934, Now Yaba College of Technology) and the University of Ibadan were founded in 1948. It was then a College of the University of London until two years after the independence when she became autonomous. More prominent universities which include the University of Nigeria, Obafemi Awolowo University (formerly the University of Ife), Ahmadu Bello University, and Mohood Abiola Kashimawo University (formerly the University of Lagos) were founded in the years that followed the Independence.

In the 1970s more universities were founded which include the University of Benin (founded in 1970), and the new universities opened in Calabar, Ilorin, Jos, Port Harcourt, Sokoto, and Maiduguri. In the

In the 1980s, more universities were opened as well as institutes specializing in Agriculture and Technology. A number of Polytechnics were also opened, which includes the Yaba College of Technology in Lagos and Kaduna Polytechnics.

In 1980, the estimated enrollment in primary schools was 12 million, Secondary and technical colleges 1.2 million, teachers colleges 240,000, and Universities 75,000. One would expect that with such an estimate, Nigerian education in Nigeria three decades after would have greatly improved. Unfortunately, the reverse has been the case.

Primary Education

Primary education begins at around age 5 for the majority of Nigerians. Students spend six years in primary school and graduate with a school-leaving certificate. Before 1976, education policy was still largely shaped by the colonial policy of the British Colonial Period. In 1976, the Universal Primary Education program was established. This program faced many difficulties and was subsequently revised in 1981 and 1990. The Universal Basic Education, UBE, came as a replacement for Universal Primary Education and intended to enhance the success of the first nine years of schooling The UBE involves 6 years of Primary School education and 3 years of Junior Secondary School education, culminating in 9 years of uninterrupted schooling, and transition from one class to another is automatic but determined through continuous assessment. This scheme is monitored by the Universal Basic Education Commission, UBEC, and has made it "free", "compulsory" and a right of every child.

 Secondary Education

Students spend six years in Secondary School, that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School). In Senior Secondary School Class 2 (SS2), students are taking the GCE O’Levels exam, which is not mandatory, but some students take it to prepare for the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. The Senior Secondary School ends on the WASSCE. Junior Secondary School is free and compulsory. It leads to the BECE, which opens the gate to Senior Secondary School.

Promotional Examinations

With the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria, the recipient of the education would spend six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary school, three years in senior secondary school, and four years in a tertiary institution. The six years spent in primary school and the three years spent in junior secondary school are merged to form the nine in the 9-3-4 system. Altogether, the students must spend a minimum period of six years in Secondary School. During this period, students are expected to spend three years in Junior Secondary School and three years in Senior Secondary School.

The General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) was replaced by the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). The SSCE is conducted at the end of the Secondary School studies in May/June. The GCE is conducted in October/November as a supplement for those students who did not get the required credits from their SSCE results. The standards of the two examinations are basically the same. A body called West African Examination Council (WAEC) conducts both the SSCE and GCE. A maximum of nine and a minimum of seven subjects are registered for the examination by each student with Mathematics and English Language taken as compulsory.

A maximum of nine grades are assigned to each subject from A1, B2, B3 (Equivalent to Distinctions Grade); C4, C5, C6 (Equivalent to Credit Grade); D7, E8 (Just Pass Grade); F9 (Fail Grade). Credit grades and above are considered academically adequate for entry into any University in Nigeria. In some study programs, many universities may require higher grades to get admission.

The Federal Government policy on education is adhered to by all secondary schools in Nigeria. Six years of elementary school is followed by six years of secondary school. Junior Secondary school consists of JSS1, JSS2, and JSS3 which are equivalent to the 7th, 8th, and 9th Grades while the Senior Secondary school consists of SS I, SS 2, and SS 3 which is equivalent to the 10th, 11th, and 12th Grade. The Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE) is taken at the end of the SS 3. The West African Examination Council (WAEC) administers both exams. Three to six months after a student has taken the SSCE examination, they are issued an official transcript from their institution. This transcript is valid for one year, after which an Official transcript from the West African Examination Council is issued.

The National Examination Council is another examination body in Nigeria; it administers the Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE) in June/July. The body also administers the General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) in December/January. Students often take both WAEC and NECO examinations in SSS 3.

Tertiary Education

The government has majority control of university education. Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of Universities (Public and Private), Polytechnics, Monotechnics, and Colleges of education. The country has a total number of 129 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state governments own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from 129 to 138 the Federal Government gave 9 new private universities their licenses in May 2015.

First-year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at a maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Candidates with a minimum of Merit Pass in National Certificate of Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND), and other Advanced Level Certificates minimum qualifications with a minimum of 5 O/L Credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs.

Students with required documents typically enter university from age 17-18 onwards and study for an academic degree.

International Education

As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC) listed Nigeria as having 129 international schools. ISC defines an 'international school' in the following terms "ISC includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other than the country’s national curriculum and is international in its orientation."

In Conclusion

This short description of the history of education will help you as an introduction to the subject. It exposes you to traditional African education, European or Christean education, Islamic Education and so on.

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