Educational Technology Lecture Notes

Educational Technology Lecture Notes

Educational Technology (Edtech) is a concept of transforming traditional book teaching and learning into digital form. Edtech can open doors to incorporate conventional classroom methods with advanced digital course studies. Utilizing this wide system, anybody can characterize successful techniques and activities to fit that one-of-a-kind setting, and, through the span of time, adequately explore the digital transformations in schools.

A further attempt at explaining the meaning of educational technology is to provide the literal interpretation of the two major concepts of “education” and “technology” (the two concepts that are fused together that provide the name “educational technology”).

“Education” is another elusive term that means many things to many people. According to Oxford English Dictionary (2000), the term means “a process of teaching, training, and learning, especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills”.

“Technology” on the other hand, is simply defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as “a body of knowledge which when used/applied helps in solving problems”. You can learn more about education technology here.

Definitions of Educational Technology

Educational technology is the use of physical hardware, software, and educational theoretics to facilitate learning and improve performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

It is the application of a system approach to education and Training: Emphasis on the interrelation of Men, Machines, Methods, Media, and Materials. In the past, it was only referred to as the science of techniques and methods by which educational goals could be realized.

Nature and Characteristics of EdTech

ET is the application of Scientific principles to education.

ET is the development of methods and techniques for effective teaching-learning.

ET is not confined to the use of electronic media in Education. It includes a systems approach also.

ET involves input, output, and process aspects of Education.

Benefits of educational technology

Technology can make education more productive.

Technology can make education Individualised.

Technology can give instruction a more scientific base.

Technology can make access to education more immediate and more equal.

Technology can make instruction more powerful and interesting.

Objectives of Educational Technology

1) Transmitting information

2) Assisting the practice of specific skills.

3) Contribution to the provision of feedback.

4) Meeting the problem of quantity- The need to reach out to maximum number of students.

5) Individualising instruction- To offer greater opportunities for independent study.

6) To design, modify and develop appropriate equipment/aids suitable and relevant to the educational process.

7) To provide motivation, interest, accuracy and more productivity in learning.

8) To realise the Learning Objectives more effectively

9) To identify the educational needs of the learner.

10) To identify the necessary teaching learning materials.

11) To plan teaching strategies, models and methods as per the need and objectives.

12) To evaluate the effectiveness of teaching strategy in terms of learning outcomes.

13) To provide appropriate feedback to student as well as teachers.

14) To modify the teaching learning process on the basis of feedback received.

15) Equalising educational opportunity.

Two Terms in Education Related to Technology

1) Technology in education

The term “technology in education” is meant the application of machines, gadgets, or equipment to improve the quality of education. This aspect is described as the “hardware” approach to educational technology. It involves the use of pieces of instructional materials (media) such as audio media, visual media, projected media, graphics, computers, and other teaching machines. It is important to note that hardware/machines are the means through which information is extracted from their corresponding software. 

Technology in Education is the application of technology to any process of education.

Use of technological advancement in terms of various equipment, materials, and machines for educational purposes.

It involves the increasingly complex range of audiovisual equipment, sophisticated electronic devices like projectors, films, radio, TV, tape recorder, computers, etc for individualized and group learning.

Audio Media

These are teaching-learning devices that appeal to the auditory sense. They consist of radio sets; audio recording machines such as audiotapes, disc machines, telephones, and walkie-talkies. 

Visual Media

These are instructional media that appeal to the sense of seeing (eyes). Most graphics are in this family of instructional media. They include pictures, photographs, diagrams, charts, and cartoons, still pictures such as slides, filmstrips, and transparencies. 

Audio-visual Media

These are instructional materials that have the capacity to provide issues in form of pictures and audio effects, in form of commentaries on the pictures simultaneously. Examples of media in this category are the television, videotape player, and filmstrip/slides with in-built or synchronized sound. 

Broadcast / Telecommunication Media

These are media through which information is disseminated usually to a mass of people/audiences that are scattered over a wide distance. Common among the family of mass media are the radio, television, and newspapers. The two former ones are in electronic form while the latter is the printed form. 

Projected Media

Projected media belong to a group of instructional resources which can only be accessed by means of protecting their content on the screen/wall using a projector machine specifically designed for the purpose. Therefore, projected media are usually a combination of software and the corresponding hardware. You may have watched a cinema or a film in a cinema house or at some gathering. Recall that there was equipment/machine that was used to propel a scroll of film.  

2) Technology of Education

The term “technology of education” refers to the application of theories and laws/rules in education and related disciplines for the purpose of improving the quality of education. Such related disciplines include sociology/sociology of education, philosophy/philosophy of education, psychology/psychology of education, communication, technology, etc. The technology of education is a component of educational technology that is involved in the use of a systems approach to promote high-quality education.

Furthermore, this aspect of educational technology is concerned with the use of systematic and scientific procedures in educational practice. Simply put, the technology of education refers to the application of the systems approach to the educational enterprise. Its main concerns include issues bothering the identification of the educational problems, analyzing the problem, setting objectives, suggesting solution strategies, synthesizing the processes, embarking on evaluation, and providing feedback. 

Technology of Education is the application of the psychology of learning theories, principles of instruction, curriculum, and learning to the process of education.

It enables a teacher to use a variety of media and modes to make his teaching effective.

In this the educationalist are involved in designing and evaluating the system of learning.

Dimensions of Educational Technology

Attempts to further provide a fuller description of educational technology have led to the emergence of three dimensions of educational technologies (Davids, 1975 Plump and Pals (1989).

Educational Technology I (ET I)

This dimension of educational technology focuses more on physical media that are designed and developed to improve the quality of teaching-learning process. This refers to the use of instructional materials of all categories to facilitate learning (Afolabi, 2008). It can also be called the hardware approach to teaching and learning. In short, ET(I) is synonymous to the meaning we gave to Technology in Education earlier in this unit.

Educational Technology II (ET II)

The meaning of this dimension of educational technology is closely related to the one we earlier provided in the discussion of Technology in Education. Indeed, the major difference between the two concepts is that of nomenclature (names). ET (II), therefore refers to all strategies, techniques, and means through which instructions are designed, planned, implemented, and evaluated. It does not exclude the integration of laws and rules, especially in the field of education for proper integration and utilization of media for better results. 

Educational Technology III (ET III)

This is an amalgam of Educational Technologies I and II that seeks to produce desirable effects. This aspect of educational technology is usually attributed to philosophical and holistic orientation based on the concept of problem analysis and goal achievement. Simply put, Educational Technology III has its roots in systems theories and applications.

This aspect attempts at putting man and machine efforts together to improve the quality of instruction. It has led to a popular concept known as the “Systems Approach”. You would learn more about this concept in the subsequent units.

Approaches to Educational Technology

The Three-Tier Approaches to Educational Technology are:

Hardware Approach

This approach implies the use of mechanical materials and equipment in education.

This approach originated from Physical Science and engineering.

Using technology in the process of education.

This approach is a by-product of the scientific and technological developments of the 20th century.

This help with knowledge explosion.

Helps in reaching out to large numbers and hence helps in reducing expenses.

It leads to overall efficiency in the educational system.

Software Approach

This approach implies the use of Psychological principles and learning theories in education.

Originated from Behavioral Science.

In the software approach, the Psychology of Learning is exploited for the production/development and utilization of software techniques and materials in terms of learning materials, teaching-learning strategies, tools of evaluation, and other devices to soften and smoothen the task of teaching and learning.

System Approach

System: A system is any collection of interrelated parts that together constitute a larger whole. A number of units working together for a particular goal.

These component parts or elements of the system are intimately linked with one another, either directly or indirectly, and any change in one or more elements may affect the overall performance of the system, either beneficially or adversely.

The system approach is an integrated, programmed complex of instructional media, hardware, and personnel whose components are structured as a single unit with a schedule of time and sequential phasing.

The system approach involves 3 stages

System Analysis: This will help the teacher to establish a meaningful relationship between Output, Input, and Process.

System Design and Implementation: This should act as the guidelines for the teacher in what to teach, when, and in what manner.

System Evaluation: This has to be done continuously and should involve formative as well as summative.

Advantages of the System Approach

It provides a framework to build plans for implementing changes in education.

It helps to identify the suitability of the resource material to achieve the specific goal.

Technological advances could be used to provide integration of machines, media, and people for attaining the defined goal.

Continuous evaluation and feedback ensure quality.

Problems in education can be systematically identified and solved.

Scope of Educational Technology

1. Spelling out Educational goals and Objectives: Help for the formulation of objectives and goals of education based on individualized and social needs.

2. Curriculum Development: Planning of curricular and co-curricular inputs in order to realize planned goals and objectives.

3. Developing Teaching-Learning materials and Resources: Develops necessary learning materials in the form of programmed learning books, computer learning packages, mass media instruction, individualized self-instructional packages, etc.

4. Developing Human resources: ET covers the area of teacher education.

5. Developing Strategies: Teaching strategies, approaches, and methods are devised and developed catering to different types of students.

6. Developing Multi-Sensory Aids: Design, and development of audio-visual aids.

7. Develops Interactive Instruction Services: ET tries to provide opportunities for the learner to control the pace, mode of presentation, etc. eg. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Teleconferencing via Internet, etc. 

8. Develops Learning Environments: ET develops learning environments that are learner-friendly. Eg. Simulation. 

9. Developing Information Resources: ET bridging the gap between developments in Information Technology and Education. Information Resources: Eg. E-libraries, Online encyclopedias, World Wide Web. 

10. Develops Communication Devices: ET has developed communication devices for students who have the mental capability to communicate but are not able to speak.

11. To Reduce the Burden of Teachers: ET supports the teacher in Teaching Learning Process.


Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video, and interactive content.

Advantages of Multimedia

Increases learning effectiveness.

Is more appealing than traditional, lecture-based teaching methods.

Offers significant potential in improving personal communications, education and teaching efforts.

Is easy to use.

Frees the teacher from routine tasks.

Creates interest in students

Disadvantages of multimedia


Requires special hardware

Not always compatible

Advantages of a multimedia approach

Makes learning more permanent.

Supplies a concrete basis for conceptual thinking.

Creates interest in students.

Offers reality of experience.

Gives depth and variety to the learning materials.

Helps to develop continuity in thought.

Helps to provide motivation, interest, accuracy, and more productivity in learning.

Helps to realize the Learning Objectives more effectively

Other Terminologies in ET

Personalized Learning

Personalized learning is an educational approach that aims to customize learning for each student's strengths, needs, skills, and interests. Each student gets a learning plan that's based on what he knows and how he learns best.

Blended learning  

Blended learning is an approach to education that combines online educational materials and opportunities for interaction online with traditional place-based classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both teacher and student, with some elements of student control over time, place, path, or pace.

Massive Open Online Courses 

MOOCs are courses delivered online and accessible to all for free. MOOC stands for a massive open online course: Massive because enrollments are unlimited and can run into hundreds of thousands.

Distance Learning 

Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education.


Courseware is educational material intended as kits for teachers or trainers or as tutorials for students, usually packaged for use with a computer. Courseware can encompass any knowledge area, but information technology subjects are the most common.

Educational games 

Educational games are games that are designed to help people to learn about certain subjects, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand a historical event or culture, or assist them in learning a skill as they play. Game types include board, card, and video games.

Social media learning

Social media promotes self-directed learning, which prepares students to search for answers and make decisions independently. When reinforced in a classroom setting, these social media skills can be guided and refined to produce better learning outcomes and critical awareness.

In Conclusion

Educational Technology is any method used in enhancing and facilitating education. It involves both teaching methods and teaching tools. Learn more about EdTech with Pat.


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