Educational Management and Administration

Educational Management and Administration

Etymologically speaking, the verb 'manage' comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle, especially tools), which derives from the Latin word manus (hand). The French word management (later ménagement) influenced the development of the meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. 

Management in business and organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or initiative to accomplish a goal.

Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management is also an academic discipline, a social science whose object of study is a social organization.

Educational Management

While Education is the provision of a series of learning experiences to students in order to impart knowledge, values, attitudes, and skills with the ultimate aim of making them productive members of society, Educational Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of an institution by utilizing human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish functions of teaching, extension work and research.

Nature and Scope

The National Policies on Education seek to bring about social, economic, and cultural development in society by focusing on human resource development through education.  Education, therefore, must have more relevant curricula, be dynamic, and empower students to bring about desirable social changes while preserving the desirable aspects of our existing culture.

Educational Management focuses on:

1. The study of theories of management science which define and describe the roles and responsibilities of the educational manager and the development of managerial skills. 

2. The study of educational planning at the macro level, its goals, principles, approaches, and processes, and institutional planning and educational administration at the micro level.

3. Decision-making, problem-solving, communication, information management, and effective team building.

4. Planning of curricular and co-curricular activities, curriculum, and academic calendar.

5. Maintenance of school records, and evaluation of students‟ achievement.

6. Effective allocation of financial resources and the planning of the budgets of institutions.

Educational Management aims at:

1. Achieving an institution’s objectives.

2. Improving the processes of planning, organizing, and implementing within the institution.

3. Creating, enhancing, and maintaining a positive public image of the institution.

4. Optimal utilization of human resources (administrators, non-teaching staff, teaching staff and

5. students).

6. Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of infrastructure.

7. Enabling job satisfaction.

8. Creating and maintaining a congenial and cohesive atmosphere.

9. Managing interpersonal conflicts, stress, etc.

10. Improving interpersonal communication.

11. Building a relationship with the community.

Functions of Educational Management





Decision making


1) Planning

a. Most basic and extensive process in management.

b. It means deciding in advance what results are to be achieved and what actions are to be taken for the same and who should take such actions, where, when, and how.

2) Organizing

a. It is the process of grouping people and activities at the disposal of an organization.

b. In a judicious manner, people and activities have to be grouped to produce the best results by following.

c. the most appropriate sequence of events

3) Directing

a. To function school properly, the proper direction should be given to the headmaster, teachers, students, and parents.

b. Direction strengthens the relationship among various units related to the institution.

4) Motivating

a. This means the continuous process of generating sufficient interest in each individual to carry out actions that can benefit the organization.

b. As strategies for motivation both monetary and non-monetary rewards are used.

5) Decision making

a. This means converting intentions to action plans on a rational basis, on the basis of a perceived relationship between actions and outcomes.

b. Decision-making is the essence of all management.

6) Evaluating

a. Evaluation is the process by which we judge the value of a thing.

b. It is the process of determining the extent to which an educational or institutional objective is attained.

Aspects of Educational Management (5M’s)

Management of Men

Management of Money

Management of Machines

Management of Material

Management of Method

Factors influenced the development of Educational management

Growing complexity of educational enterprise

Modern technological development

Ever-changing pattern of education

Rising cost of education

Increasing politicization of education

Social changes

Organizational Process (in Schools)

Academic planning

Resource mobilization

Co-curricular activities planning

Time allocation




1) Academic Planning

Academic planning includes

Planning and approval for new academic programs.

Substantial changes to those programs.

Planning and approval for academic departments and centers/institutes.

Changes associated with Subjects and courses.

A good academic plan evolves from Self-Assessment and Knowledge.

2) Resource mobilization

Includes Mobilise Financial, physical and human resources for the support and development of infrastructure and programmes.

Identify needs, Design appropriately by collecting systems according to requirements.

3) Co-curricular activities planning

Through rich and diverse programmes students should be able to experience safe, enjoyable, and challenging activities that will enable them to develop and grow into successful and happy young adults.

Activities and programmes are to be planned for the kinesthetic and emotional development of every student.

4) Time allocation

It is an important aspect of planning.

Proper time is to be allocated for each and every aspect of the curriculum.

5) Monitoring

Monitoring the implementation of projects and programmes that are executed and managed at various levels is essential for quality outputs.

6) Evaluating

Evaluation is essential for obtaining valid information about the performance of an organization and factors that affect performance.

It is essential for improving organizational performance

7) Feedback

Detailed analysis of strengths and opportunities for improvement.

Insight from all levels and groups in the organization.

Comparing performance with other organizations for improvement.

It is essential for adaptation, changes, and hence for survival.

Leadership - Meaning

Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act toward achieving a common goal.

Educational Leadership

“An educational Leader is always trying to get others to accept his decisions or his objectives or encourages them to join in some common purpose. His skill is like that of any other leader. Have the ability to make a significant judgment and to encourage others to accept these judgments”-Barky.

Qualities that Make a Great Leader


Ability to Delegate


Sense of Humor



Positive Attitude



Ability to Inspire

Performance Appraisal

Systematic evaluation of the performance of the employees. The systematic evaluation of the performance of employees and understanding of the abilities of a person for further growth and development.

The process by which a manager or consultant

(1) Examines and evaluates an employee's work behavior by comparing it with preset standards,

(2) Documents the results of the comparison.

(3) Uses the results to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvements are needed and why.

Performance Appraisal-Importance

Facilitates growth, development, efficiency, and effectiveness. Performance appraisals are employed to determine who needs what training, and who will be promoted, demoted, retained, or fired.

Criteria of Performance Appraisal of Teachers

Knowledge of the content area

Knowledge of Delivery Methods

Pedagogic content knowledge. (PCK)

Understanding the Learning Process

Understanding of Student Needs

Curriculum Alignment

Ability to use Student Achievement Data in Planning Instruction

Classroom Management

Professional Growth/Continuous Improvement

Ability to use Technology as a Tool in the Classroom

Communication with Stakeholders Inside and Outside the School Setting

Establishes relationships with colleagues, students, and parents.

1) Knowledge of the content area: Content knowledge refers to the body of information that teachers teach and that students are expected to learn in a given subject or content areas, such as English language, mathematics, science, or social studies. Content knowledge generally refers to the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are taught and learned.

2) Knowledge of Delivery Methods: Good teachers are expected to have the ability to transfer the content to learners in an effective and appropriate way. Communicating ideas and concepts in a simple, clear, and sequential manner using examples where ever possible is an important criterion for effective teaching.

3) Pedagogic content knowledge. (PCK): In addition to teachers' content knowledge and their general knowledge of instructional methods (pedagogical knowledge), pedagogical content knowledge was originally suggested as a third major component of teaching expertise, by Lee Shulman.

Pedagogical content knowledge is a type of knowledge that is unique to teachers and is based on the manner in which teachers relate their pedagogical knowledge (what they know about teaching) to their subject matter knowledge (what they know about what they teach). It is the integration or the synthesis of teachers' pedagogical knowledge and their subject matter knowledge that comprises pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge is a form of knowledge that makes science teachers ‘teachers’ rather than scientists.

4) Understanding the Learning Process: In order to engage, motivate and teach all learners at optimal levels, teachers must understand the learning process. There are six interactive components of the learning process: attention, memory, language, processing and organizing, writing, and higher-order thinking.

These processes interact not only with each other but also with emotions, classroom climate, behavior, social skills, teachers, and family. Most of the learning process will involve four essential processes:

Synthesising (bringing together information internally).

Organising (making sense and ordering this information).

Memorising (holding on to this information in order to use it at will).

Communicating (making your ideas available to others).

5) Understanding of Student Needs: To effectively choose teaching methods and help students learn, the teacher must first know something about whom they are teaching. Students will be coming from different backgrounds and have various learning needs. Knowledge about students will enable teachers to refine lectures, class discussions, comments, illustrations, and activities so that they are more effective learning experiences.

References to student interests, backgrounds, knowledge, and even anxieties can make the class seem more personal and the material more accessible. Student’s backgrounds can be properly accessed by suitable tools like questionnaires etc.

6) Curriculum Alignment: Curriculum alignment is the process in which teachers across all levels formally evaluate/implement curriculum to address the changing needs of students and society. Curriculum alignment is defined as the degree to which expectations and assessments are in agreement with one another to guide the system toward students learning what they are expected to do and know.

7) Ability to use Student Achievement Data in Planning Instruction:

Student achievement data such as teacher observational notes of students' performance in class, samples of students' class work, student portfolios, results of formal and informal classroom assessments, and report cards should be properly interpreted by the teacher for further improvement and planning of instruction.

8) Classroom Management:

Manages discipline problems in accordance with administrative regulations, school board policies, and legal requirements

Design a safe, friendly, and well-managed classroom environment.

Establishes and clearly communicates parameters for student classroom behavior

Promotes self-discipline

Manages disruptive behavior constructively

Demonstrates fairness and consistency

Arranges the classroom for effective instruction

9) Professional Growth/Continuous Improvement:

Is involved in professional associations

Participates on district/state committees, etc.

Participates in professional workshops

Attends professional meetings

Keeps current in a subject area

Engages in continuing education

10) Ability to use Technology as a Tool in the Classroom: Teachers should have basic knowledge of technology to use it in the classroom for effective teaching and learning. Teachers should know to use various software, projective and non-projective aids to make teaching more interesting. Additionally, it is good for a teacher to have knowledge about Blogging, Using Google tools, Web 2.0, Interactive whiteboards, Web designing, video-audio editing, etc.

11) Communication with Stakeholders Inside and Outside the School Setting: Teachers should have essential soft skills like influencing, communicating, team building, etc to maintain good interrelationships between students, staff, and other stakeholders inside and outside the school setting.

12) Establishes relationships with colleagues, students, and parents:

Encourages community involvement with the school

Provides a climate that opens up communication between the teacher and parent

Communicates with parents in the best interest of the students

Supports parents/teacher activities

Provides information related to support resources

Interacts With Administration and Other Educational Personnel

Cooperates with other teachers, the administration, and other educational personnel

Makes use of support services as needed

Share ideas and methods with other teachers and maintain a good relationship.

Informs administration and/or appropriate personnel of school-related items.

Records in Schools

School records are official documents, and files containing essential information about actions and events which are kept and preserved in the school office for utilization and retrieval of information when needed. Such records are kept by principals, teachers, or administrative staff.

Keeping accurate and proper records of students' achievement and growth, and information on school activities and matters will help to promote the efficiency and effectiveness of the school system.

Importance of essential records in Schools

According to Durosaro (2002), records are important tools for the effective planning and administration of a school. School records have importance in the effective and efficient organization and administration of the school for the planning and implementation of the appropriate courses of action allowing proper monitoring of activities/tasks.

Records are important because they serve as a major information tool that sustains the school and aid in achieving educational goals and objectives. Records restore teaching competence and maintain the trend in the history of teaching and learning processes.

Important Records in the Schools

1. Admission Register

2. Attendance register for staff and students

3. Attendance register for students

4. Stock register

5. Acquaintance Register

6. Teaching Manual

7. Student Profile

8. Cumulative record

9. Service book

1) Admission Register

Record all the pupils

Every admission and re-admission

2) Attendance Register of Staff /Teachers

The regular attendance of the staff.

Separate attendance register for teaching and non-teaching staff.

Placed in the school office or principal’s room.

Note down the time of their arrival as well as departure every day.

To maintain institutional discipline

To inculcate values like regularity and punctuality

Provides an overview of leaves taken by staff members

3) Attendance Register of Students

Kept and maintained by the class teacher

Consists of admission numbers, roll numbers, and names of the students.

Should take attendance twice a day

4) Stock Register

The details of all materials and equipment in the school.

Furniture, stationary, laboratory equipment, sports materials, books, etc

Separate stock register for library and laboratory

5) Acquaintance Roll

It is the financial document that shows the details of payment to the staff in the educational institution

The name and designation of the claimant and the net amount payable

6) Teaching Manual

Record of teacher’s daily work

His/her plan of work with the students

What He/she has already done

What does he/she intends to do during a particular period?

7) Student Profile

A report was written by the teacher on a pupil’s academic and social progress.

It can include the data submitted by the student as well as information which is added by staff members

Personal data, family background, health information, scholastic record, non-scholastic record, personality traits, etc.

8) Service Book

An official record of the government employees regarding their professional life in the institution.

Information about the official details of an employee.

9) Cumulative Record

A record containing detailed information about a child so as to reveal the growth and development of the child while in school in all aspects.

Personality, physical, mental, moral, social, etc - from the beginning to the end of his school career.

It keeps the whole history of a child during his school life.

Rules to be followed while maintaining each record

Should be Up-to-date

Should be genuine

Should be Authentic

Should be true, correct, original, and comprehensive.

Should be easily available and accessible

Should be properly secured.

In Conclusion

Education management is both a field of academic study and a collective group of professionals that includes principals, teachers, and other education professionals. Learn what responsibilities these professionals have including their impact on education policy.


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