JavaScript Tutorial for Beginners Step by Step

 

JavaScript is a programming language that is widely used in web development. It is used to enhance the functionality of websites, making them more interactive and engaging for users. This tutorial is designed for beginners who have little to no experience with JavaScript. It covers the basics of the language, including data types, variables, loops, and functions, and gradually builds up to more advanced concepts. By the end of this tutorial, you will have a solid understanding of how to use JavaScript to create dynamic, interactive websites.

Objectives

  • Understand the fundamental concepts of programming and how they apply to JavaScript
  • Become familiar with the syntax and structure of JavaScript code
  • Learn how to use variables, data types, and operators in JavaScript
  • Understand how to use loops and control structures to create complex programs
  • Learn how to define and call functions in JavaScript
  • Understand how to use objects and arrays to store and manipulate data
  • Learn how to use JavaScript to interact with web pages and APIs

Introduction to programming and JavaScript

What is Programming and Why is it Useful?

Programming is the process of designing and building computer programs. It involves writing instructions in a specific language that a computer can understand and execute. Programming is useful because it allows us to create complex systems and processes that can be automated, saving time and effort.

For example, consider a simple program that calculates the area of a circle. Without programming, we would need to manually perform the calculations for each circle, using a formula like area = pi * r^2. This can be time-consuming and prone to errors, especially if we need to perform the calculation many times. With programming, we can write a program that accepts the radius of the circle as input and returns the calculated area. This program can be run anytime we need to perform the calculation, saving time and reducing the risk of errors.

What is JavaScript and How is it Used in Web Development?

JavaScript is a popular programming language that is widely used in web development. It is a client-side language, which means that it is executed by the user's web browser rather than on the server. JavaScript is used to enhance the functionality of websites, making them more interactive and engaging for users.

For example, a website that displays a slideshow of images or a form that validates user input would not be possible without JavaScript. JavaScript can also be used to make HTTP requests to APIs and retrieve data from external sources, allowing websites to display dynamic content.

Here is a simple example of a JavaScript program that displays an alert message:

<script>

  alert("Hello, world!");

</script>

This program will display a pop-up window with the message "Hello, world!" when the webpage containing the script is loaded.

Setting up a Development Environment

To start programming in JavaScript, you will need to set up a development environment. This typically includes a text editor to write your code and a web browser to test and run your programs. There are many options available, such as Atom, Sublime Text, and Visual Studio Code, and you can choose the one that best fits your needs. It is also helpful to have a basic understanding of HTML and CSS, as these technologies are often used in conjunction with JavaScript to build websites.

For example, to create a simple webpage with JavaScript, you would typically use a text editor to write the HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code, and then open the webpage in a web browser to see the result. The browser will execute the JavaScript code and apply any changes to the webpage as specified by the code.

There are many tools available to help you set up a development environment, including integrated development environments (IDEs) such as Visual Studio Code or WebStorm.

Once your development environment is set up, you can begin writing JavaScript code. The basic syntax of JavaScript involves using keywords, variables, and operators to create statements that can be executed by the computer. For example, the following code defines a variable called "message" and assigns it the value "Hello, World!":

var message = "Hello, World!";

You can then use this variable to display the message to the user by adding it to the web page using the document object model (DOM):

document.write(message);

With these basic concepts in mind, you are ready to start learning more about JavaScript and how to use it to create dynamic, interactive websites.

Basic syntax and structure of JavaScript code

Writing and Executing Your First JavaScript Code

To write JavaScript code, you will need a text editor and a web browser. You can use any text editor that you prefer, such as Atom, Sublime Text, or Visual Studio Code. To execute your code, you will need to open it in a web browser.

To write your first JavaScript code, follow these steps:

1. Open your text editor and create a new file.

2. Type the following code into the file:

<script>

  console.log("Hello, world!");

</script>

3. Save the file with a .html extension (e.g. hello-world.html).

4. Open the file in a web browser.

When you open the file in the web browser, the JavaScript code will be executed, and the message "Hello, world!" will be printed to the console. You can view the console by opening the developer tools in your web browser (usually by pressing F12 or Ctrl + Shift + I).

Understanding the Structure of a JavaScript Program

A JavaScript program typically consists of one or more functions that are executed when the program is run. A function is a block of code that performs a specific task and can be called from other parts of the program.

Here is an example of a simple JavaScript program with a function:

<script>

  function greet(name) {

    console.log("Hello, " + name + "!");

  }

  greet("Alice");

  greet("Bob");

</script>

This program defines a function greet that takes a parameter name and prints a greeting to the console. The function is called twice with different arguments, resulting in the following output:

Hello, Alice!

Hello, Bob!

Comments and Whitespace

It is a good practice to include comments in your code to explain what your program is doing and how it works. In JavaScript, you can add a comment by starting a line with // or enclosing a block of text in /* and */.

Here is an example of a program with comments:

<script>

  // This function prints a greeting to the console

  function greet(name) {

    console.log("Hello, " + name + "!");

  }

  /*

   * This line calls the greet function with the

   * argument "Alice"

   */

  greet("Alice");

</script>

Whitespace, such as spaces and blank lines, is also important in JavaScript. It is used to improve the readability of your code and make it easier to understand. However, whitespace is generally ignored by the interpreter, so you can use as much or as little as you like, as long as your code is correctly formatted.

Variables and data types

What is a Variable and Why Do We Use It?

A variable is a named storage location in a program that can hold a value. It allows us to store and manipulate data within a program. We use variables to store and use data in our programs because it is more efficient than constantly re-entering the same values.

For example, consider a program that calculates the area of a circle. Instead of hardcoding the value of pi into the formula, we can use a variable to store the value and use it in the calculation. This way, if we need to change the value of pi, we can do so in one place rather than having to update the value in multiple places throughout the program.

<script>

  // Declare a variable to store the value of pi

  var pi = 3.14;

  // Declare a variable to store the radius of the circle

  var radius = 5;

  // Calculate the area of the circle using the formula

  var area = pi * radius * radius;

  // Print the result to the console

  console.log(area); // Output: 78.5

</script>

Declaring and Assigning Variables

In JavaScript, you can declare a variable using the var keyword. You can then assign a value to the variable using the assignment operator =.

Here is an example of declaring and assigning a variable:

<script>

  // Declare a variable and assign a value

  var message = "Hello, world!";

  // Print the value of the variable to the console

  console.log(message); // Output: "Hello, world!"

</script>

You can also declare multiple variables in a single statement by separating them with commas:

<script>

  // Declare and assign values to multiple variables

  var message1 = "Hello, world!",

      message2 = "Hello, JavaScript!",

      message3 = "Hello, programming!";

  // Print the values of the variables to the console

  console.log(message1); // Output: "Hello, world!"

  console.log(message2); // Output: "Hello, JavaScript!"

  console.log(message3); // Output: "Hello, programming!"

</script>

Understanding Data Types in JavaScript

In JavaScript, there are several basic data types that can be stored in variables:

  1. string: A sequence of characters, such as a word or phrase. Strings are written using single or double quotes.
  2. number: A numerical value. Numbers can be integers (whole numbers) or floating-point numbers (decimals).
  3. boolean: A value that represents true or false.

Here are some examples of declaring variables with different data types:

<script>

  // Declare and assign a string

  var message = "Hello, world!";

  // Declare and assign a number

  var count = 10;

  // Declare and assign a boolean

  var isTrue = true;

</script>

It is important to choose the appropriate data type for your variables to ensure that your program works correctly. For example, if you try to perform arithmetic operations on a string, you will get an error because strings cannot be used in arithmetic operations.

Operators and expressions

Basic Arithmetic Operators

JavaScript has several basic arithmetic operators that can be used to perform calculations:

  • +: Addition
  • -: Subtraction
  • *: Multiplication
  • /: Division

Here is an example of using these operators in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Declare and assign values to variables

  var num1 = 10,

      num2 = 5;

  // Perform calculations using the arithmetic operators

  var sum = num1 + num2;

  var difference = num1 - num2;

  var product = num1 * num2;

  var quotient = num1 / num2;

  // Print the results to the console

  console.log(sum); // Output: 15

  console.log(difference); // Output: 5

  console.log(product); // Output: 50

  console.log(quotient); // Output: 2

</script>

Comparison Operators

JavaScript also has several comparison operators that can be used to compare values:

  • >: Greater than
  • <: Less than
  • >=: Greater than or equal to
  • <=: Less than or equal to
  • ==: Equal to
  • !=: Not equal to

Comparison operators return a boolean value of true or false depending on the result of the comparison.

Here is the completed example for comparison operators:

<script>

  // Declare and assign values to variables

  var num1 = 10,

      num2 = 5;

  // Perform comparisons using the comparison operators

  var isGreater = num1 > num2;

  var isLess = num1 < num2;

  var isGreaterOrEqual = num1 >= num2;

  var isLessOrEqual = num1 <= num2;

  var isEqual = num1 == num2;

  var isNotEqual = num1 != num2;

  // Print the results to the console

  console.log(isGreater); // Output: true

  console.log(isLess); // Output: false

  console.log(isGreaterOrEqual); // Output: true

  console.log(isLessOrEqual); // Output: false

  console.log(isEqual); // Output: false

  console.log(isNotEqual); // Output: true

</script>

Logical Operators

JavaScript also has several logical operators that can be used to perform logical operations:

  • &&: Logical AND
  • ||: Logical OR
  • !: Logical NOT

Logical operators return a boolean value of true or false depending on the result of the operation.

Here is an example of using logical operators in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Declare and assign values to variables

  var num1 = 10,

      num2 = 5;

  // Perform logical operations using the logical operators

  var bothPositive = num1 > 0 && num2 > 0;

  var eitherPositive = num1 > 0 || num2 > 0;

  var isNotPositive = !(num1 > 0);

  // Print the results to the console

  console.log(bothPositive); // Output: true

  console.log(eitherPositive); // Output: true

  console.log(isNotPositive); // Output: false

</script>

Using Operators and Expressions in Your Code

Operators and expressions are an essential part of any programming language, and JavaScript is no exception. They allow us to perform calculations and make decisions in our programs.

It is important to use operators and expressions correctly in your code to ensure that your program works as intended. Pay attention to the data types of your variables and the rules of the operators you are using to avoid errors.

Control structures and loops

If-Else Statements for Decision Making

JavaScript has an if-else statement that allows you to make decisions in your code based on a condition. The basic structure of an if-else statement is as follows:

if (condition) {

  // Code to execute if condition is true

} else {

  // Code to execute if condition is false

}

The condition is a boolean expression that is evaluated to determine which block of code to execute. If the condition is true, the code in the first block is executed. If the condition is false, the code in the second block is executed.

Here is an example of using an if-else statement in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Declare and assign a value to a variable

  var num = 10;

  // Check if the value of the variable is positive or negative

  if (num > 0) {

    console.log(num + " is positive.");

  } else {

    console.log(num + " is negative.");

  }

  // Output: "10 is positive."

</script>

You can also use multiple if-else statements to create a more complex decision tree. In this case, the code in the first if block is executed if the condition is true, and the code in the following else if blocks is executed if the conditions are true. If none of the conditions are true, the code in the final else block is executed.

Here is an example of using multiple if-else statements in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Declare and assign a value to a variable

  var num = 10;

  // Check if the value of the variable is positive, negative, or zero

  if (num > 0) {

    console.log(num + " is positive.");

  } else if (num < 0) {

    console.log(num + " is negative.");

  } else {

    console.log(num + " is zero.");

  }

  // Output: "10 is positive."

</script>

For Loops for Repetition

A for loop is a control structure that allows you to execute a block of code multiple times. The basic structure of a for loop is as follows:

for (initialization; condition; iteration) {

  // Code to execute

}

The initialization statement is executed before the loop starts, and is typically used to declare and initialize a loop counter variable. The condition is a boolean expression that is evaluated before each iteration of the loop. If the condition is true, the loop continues; if the condition is false, the loop terminates. The iteration statement is executed after each iteration of the loop, and is typically used to update the loop counter variable.

Here is an example of using a for loop in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Declare and initialize a loop counter variable

  var i;

  // Use a for loop to iterate 10 times

  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {

    console.log(i); // Output: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

  }

</script>

You can use a for loop to iterate over an array, as well. In this case, the loop counter variable takes on the value of each element in the array, one at a time.

Here is an example of using a for loop to iterate over an array in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Declare and initialize an array

  var fruits = ["apple", "banana", "orange", "grape"];

  // Use a for loop to iterate over the array

  for (var i = 0; i < fruits.length; i++) {

    console.log(fruits[i]); // Output: "apple", "banana", "orange", "grape"

  }

</script>

While Loops for Repetition

A while loop is a control structure that allows you to execute a block of code multiple times. The basic structure of a while loop is as follows:

while (condition) {

  // Code to execute

}

The condition is a boolean expression that is evaluated before each iteration of the loop. If the condition is true, the loop continues; if the condition is false, the loop terminates.

Here is an example of using a while loop in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Declare and initialize a loop counter variable

  var i = 0;

  // Use a while loop to iterate 10 times

  while (i < 10) {

    console.log(i); // Output: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

    i++; // Increment the loop counter variable

  }

</script>

Using Control Structures and Loops in Your Code

Control structures and loops are powerful tools that can help you write efficient and expressive code. They allow you to create complex logic and repeat actions, which can save you time and effort.

Functions

What is a Function and Why Do We Use It?

A function is a block of code that performs a specific task and can be reused multiple times in a program. Functions are useful because they allow you to encapsulate and organize your code, and make it more modular and maintainable.

Defining and Calling Functions

To define a function in JavaScript, you use the function keyword followed by the function name and a list of parameters in parentheses. The code to be executed by the function is contained within curly braces. Here is an example of a simple function definition:

<script>

  // Define a function named "add" that takes two parameters

  function add(x, y) {

    // Return the sum of the two parameters

    return x + y;

  }

</script>

To call a function in JavaScript, you use the function name followed by a list of arguments in parentheses. The arguments are the actual values that are passed to the function when it is called. Here is an example of calling the add function defined above:

<script>

  // Call the "add" function with two arguments

  var result = add(2, 3);

  console.log(result); // Output: 5

</script>

Function Parameters and Arguments

The parameters of a function are the variables that are defined in the function definition and receive the values of the arguments passed to the function when it is called. In the example above, the add function has two parameters, x and y, which receive the values of the arguments 2 and 3, respectively.

Return Values from Functions

A function can return a value to the calling code using the return keyword. The value that is returned is the result of the function's task. In the example above, the add function returns the sum of the two parameters, which is then assigned to the result variable.

Using Functions in Your Code

Functions are a powerful tool for organizing and reusing your code. You can define functions for common tasks and call them multiple times in your code, which can save you time and effort.

Here is an example of using multiple functions in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Define a function named "add" that takes two parameters

  function add(x, y) {

    // Return the sum of the two parameters

    return x + y;

  }


  // Define a function named "subtract" that takes two parameters

  function subtract(x, y) {

    // Return the difference of the two parameters

    return x - y;

  }


  // Call the "add" function with two arguments

  var result1 = add(2, 3);

  console.log(result1); // Output: 5


  // Call the "subtract" function with two arguments

  var result2 = subtract(5, 2);

  console.log(result2); // Output: 3

</script>

Objects and arrays

What is an Object and How Do We Use It?

An object is a data structure that consists of a set of key-value pairs. In JavaScript, you can define an object using curly braces and a list of properties. Each property consists of a key (a string) and a value (a data type). You can access the value of a property using dot notation or square bracket notation.

Here is an example of defining and using an object in JavaScript:

<script>

  // Define an object named "person" with three properties

  var person = {

    "firstName": "John",

    "lastName": "Doe",

    "age": 30

  };


  // Access the value of the "firstName" property using dot notation

  console.log(person.firstName); // Output: "John"


  // Access the value of the "age" property using square bracket notation

  console.log(person["age"]); // Output: 30

</script>

Creating and Accessing Object Properties

You can create a new property in an object using either dot notation or square bracket notation. To create a new property using dot notation, you use the object name followed by a dot and the property name. To create a new property using square bracket notation, you use the object name followed by a square bracket, the property name in quotes, and a value.

Here is an example of creating and accessing a new property in an object using both dot notation and square bracket notation:

<script>

  // Define an object named "person" with three properties

  var person = {

    "firstName": "John",

    "lastName": "Doe",

    "age": 30

  };


  // Create a new property named "country" using dot notation

  person.country = "USA";


  // Create a new property named "city" using square bracket notation

  person["city"] = "New York";


  // Access the value of the "country" property using dot notation

  console.log(person.country); // Output: "USA"


  // Access the value of the "city" property using square bracket notation

  console.log(person["city"]); // Output: "New York"

</script>

What is an Array and How Do We Use It?

An array is a data structure that stores a list of values. In JavaScript, you can define an array using square brackets and a list of values separated by commas. You can access the elements of an array using their index, which is the position of the element in the array. The index of the first element is 0, and the index of the last element is the length of the array minus 1.

Here is an example of defining and using an array in JavaScript:

<script>

  // Define an array named "fruits" with three elements

  var fruits = ["apple", "banana", "orange"];


  // Access the second element of the array (index 1)

  console.log(fruits[1]); // Output: "banana"

</script>

Accessing Array Elements and Modifying an Array

You can access the elements of an array using their index, as shown in the previous example. You can also modify the elements of an array using their index. To do this, you assign a new value to the element using the assignment operator (=).

Here is an example of accessing and modifying the elements of an array in JavaScript:

<script>

  // Define an array named "fruits" with three elements

  var fruits = ["apple", "banana", "orange"];


  // Modify the second element of the array (index 1)

  fruits[1] = "mango";


  // Access the second element of the array (index 1)

  console.log(fruits[1]); // Output: "mango"

</script>

You can also use the push() method to add a new element to the end of an array, and the unshift() method to add a new element to the beginning of an array.

Here is an example of using the push() and unshift() methods to modify an array in JavaScript:

<script>

  // Define an array named "fruits" with three elements

  var fruits = ["apple", "banana", "orange"];


  // Add a new element to the end of the array using the push() method

  fruits.push("grape");


  // Add a new element to the beginning of the array using the unshift() method

  fruits.unshift("pear");


  console.log(fruits); // Output: ["pear", "apple", "banana", "orange", "grape"]

</script>

Using Objects and Arrays in Your Code

Objects and arrays are powerful tools for organizing and storing data in your JavaScript programs. You can use them to create complex data structures, and access and modify the data stored within them using various methods and properties.

Here is an example of using objects and arrays in a JavaScript program:

<script>

  // Define an object named "person" with three properties

  var person = {

    "firstName": "John",

    "lastName": "Doe",

    "age": 30,

    "hobbies": ["reading", "running", "traveling"]

  };


  // Access the value of the "firstName" property using dot notation

  console.log(person.firstName); // Output: "John"


  // Access the value of the "age" property using square bracket notation

  console.log(person["age"]); // Output: 30


  // Access the second element of the "hobbies" array (index 1)

  console.log(person.hobbies[1]); // Output: "running"

</script>

Working with the DOM and APIs

What is the DOM and How Do We Manipulate It with JavaScript?

The DOM (Document Object Model) is a programming interface for HTML and XML documents. It represents the structure of a document as a tree-like object, and allows you to manipulate the content and structure of a document using JavaScript.

To manipulate the DOM with JavaScript, you can use various methods and properties provided by the DOM API. For example, you can use the getElementById() method to access an element by its ID, the querySelector() method to access elements by a CSS selector, and the innerHTML property to modify the content of an element.

Here is an example of manipulating the DOM with JavaScript:

<script>

  // Access an element with the ID "my-element"

  var element = document.getElementById("my-element");


  // Modify the innerHTML of the element

  element.innerHTML = "Hello, World!";

</script>

Accessing and Modifying HTML Elements

You can use the DOM API to access and modify HTML elements in a web page. For example, you can use the getElementById() method to access an element by its ID, the querySelector() method to access elements by a CSS selector, and the innerHTML property to modify the content of an element.

Here is an example of accessing and modifying an HTML element in a web page using JavaScript:

<!-- HTML code -->

<p id="my-element">Hello, World!</p>


<script>

  // Access the element with the ID "my-element"

  var element = document.getElementById("my-element");


  // Modify the innerHTML of the element

  element.innerHTML = "Hello, JavaScript!";

</script>

Handling events

The Document Object Model (DOM) is a programming interface for HTML and XML documents. It represents the structure of a document as a tree of objects, with each object representing a part of the document (e.g. an element, an attribute, or a piece of text).

You can use JavaScript to interact with the DOM by adding event listeners to elements in the DOM. An event listener is a function that gets executed when a specific event occurs on an element. For example, you can add a click event listener to a button element, which will execute a function when the button is clicked.

To add an event listener to an element, you can use the addEventListener method on the element. Here's an example of how you can add a click event listener to a button element:

const button = document.querySelector('button');

button.addEventListener('click', function() {

  console.log('The button was clicked!');

});

There are many other events that you can listen for, such as mouseover, focus, and submit. You can find a complete list of events in the MDN documentation.

Making HTTP requests to APIs

An API (Application Programming Interface) is a set of rules that defines how two software systems can communicate with each other. Many websites and services provide APIs that you can use to retrieve data or interact with their systems.

To make an HTTP request to an API from a web page, you can use the fetch function. The fetch function returns a promise that resolves to the response of the request. Here's an example of how you can use fetch to get data from the Star Wars API:

fetch('https://swapi.dev/api/people/1/')

  .then(response => response.json())

  .then(data => console.log(data));

The fetch function takes the URL of the API as its first argument, and it returns a promise that resolves to a response object. The response object has a json method that you can use to parse the response body as JSON.

Working with data from APIs in your code

Once you have retrieved data from an API, you can use it in your code to display information on the page or to perform other actions. For example, you can use the data to update the contents of an element on the page.

Here's an example of how you can use data from the Star Wars API to update the contents of a div element:

fetch('https://swapi.dev/api/people/1/')

  .then(response => response.json())

  .then(data => {

    const div = document.querySelector('div');

    div.innerHTML = `<h1>${data.name}</h1>`;

  });

In this example, we use the innerHTML property of the div element to update its contents with the name of the character that we retrieved from the API.

You can also use data from an API to create new elements on the page or to modify existing elements. For example, you can use the data to create a list of items or to update the style of an element.

Debugging and troubleshooting

Common mistakes and how to debug your code

Debugging is the process of finding and fixing errors in your code. There are many common mistakes that people make when writing code, such as:

  1. Syntax errors: These are mistakes in the structure of your code, such as missing brackets or semicolons.
  2. Reference errors: These occur when you try to use a variable that has not been defined.
  3. Type errors: These occur when you try to perform an operation on the wrong data type (e.g. trying to add a number to a string).
  4. Logic errors: These are mistakes in the logic of your code, such as using the wrong comparison operator or trying to access an element of an array with an index that is out of bounds.

To debug your code, you can use the developer console in your browser. The developer console is a tool that allows you to see the output of your code and any errors that it generates.

To open the developer console in most browsers, you can use the F12 key or right-click on the page and select "Inspect". The console will open at the bottom of the browser window.

Using the developer console to find errors

The developer console will display any errors that occur in your code, along with the line number and file where the error occurred. It will also show any messages that you log to the console using the console.log function.

Here's an example of how you can use the console.log function to debug your code:

const x = 10;

const y = 5;

const z = x + y;

console.log(z);

In this example, we are logging the value of z to the console. If we run this code and open the developer console, we will see the value of z printed in the console. This can be helpful for understanding what is happening in your code and identifying where errors might be occurring.

Tips for troubleshooting and fixing problems in your code

Here are some tips for troubleshooting and fixing problems in your code:

  1. Read the error message carefully: The error message will often tell you what went wrong and where the error occurred.
  2. Check your syntax: Make sure that you have used the correct syntax for the language you are using (e.g. proper indentation, matching brackets, etc.).
  3. Test your code incrementally: If you have a large codebase, it can be helpful to test your code in small increments to make it easier to identify where errors are occurring.
  4. Use the developer console: As mentioned earlier, the developer console can be a useful tool for debugging your code. You can use it to log values and see what is happening at different points in your code.
  5. Ask for help: If you are stuck and can't figure out what is wrong with your code, don't be afraid to ask for help. You can ask a colleague, post a question on a forum or Stack Overflow, or get help from a tutor or mentor.

In Conclusion

By the end of this tutorial, you will have a strong foundation in JavaScript and be able to confidently use it to create interactive websites. You will have learned the fundamental concepts of programming and how they apply to JavaScript, as well as how to use variables, loops, functions, and objects to create complex programs.

You will also have gained experience working with the DOM and APIs to interact with web pages and data. With this knowledge, you will be well-prepared to continue learning more advanced topics and to build your own web projects.

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